Efforts to reform our criminal justice system were hijacked in Congress at the last minute by an effort to weaken the ability to prosecute corporate and white collar crime.

Our criminal justice system is in need of reform. Incarceration in the U.S. has grown dramatically while the crime rate has fallen. There are over 2.2 million people incarcerated in federal, state, and local prisons today compared with 1 million in the late 1980s and half a million in the 1970s. Our incarceration rate of over 700 people per 100,000 of population is the highest in the world. With 4.4% of the world’s population, we have over 22% of the world’s prisoners. There is also great variation among the states with Louisiana having an incarceration rate (over 1,400 people per 100,000) over three times that of Minnesota and Maine (less than 400 people per 100,000). [1]

The cost of incarceration at the federal, state, and local levels has been growing along with the prison population and is currently roughly $80 billion a year. This rapidly growing cost is unsustainable for many states and is squeezing public spending in other areas.

However, since 1990, the overall crime rate in the U.S. has fallen by 45% (i.e., from roughly 5,900 per 100,000 residents to about 3,250). It is at its lowest rate since the late 1960s after peaking in 1980. [2]

Another key problem with our criminal justice system is its racial bias. In terms of incarceration, 60% of those in prison are racial or ethnic minorities. The incarceration rate for Black adult men (4.7% of their population) is almost seven times that of White men (0.7%) and over 2.5 times that of Hispanic men (1.8%). Over their lifetimes, 1 out of every 3 Black men will spend time in prison, while only 1 in 20 White men will and 1 in 6 Hispanic men.

These were the problems that were ostensibly the focus of a broad, bipartisan coalition that formed in early 2015, although priorities undoubtedly varied. Fiscal conservatives wanted to reduce costs, increase efficiency, and reduce government spending. Human rights and liberal groups wanted to reduce racial inequities, including in sentencing for non-violent drug crimes. Libertarian groups wanted to reduce the prison population in order to reduce the size of government and its control over people’s lives.

The initial targets for reform were elimination of mandatory minimum sentences for non-violent drug offenses and giving judges more discretion in sentencing. The coalition worked closely with members of the U.S. Senate in drafting a bill and had the strong support of the President. [3]

After months of work by the bipartisan coalition and on the eve of a vote on the bill in the Senate Judiciary Committee, Senator Hatch demanded that provisions weakening the ability to prosecute white collar crime be added to the bill. This, apparently, was the hidden agenda of the business conservatives, led by the Koch brothers, who had participated in the coalition. The Senate refused to add these provisions and proceeded to pass the bill.

The bill then went to the House where Judiciary Committee Chairman Goodlatte threatened to kill the bill unless provisions weakening the prosecution of white collar crime were added. As a compromise to move the sentencing reform ahead, these provisions were added along with some other criminal justice reforms, such as easing re-entry into society after completion of a prison sentence. It is unclear when and if this compromise bill will move forward.

The Department of Justice and the White House are strongly opposed to the provisions weakening the prosecution of white collar crime. They maintain their opposition despite four meetings with a senior White House official by Koch Industries’ (the Koch brothers company) Senior Vice President during the time the compromise was being negotiated in the House. This is the kind of access and power the economic elites in our society have to our elected officials.

Basically, the white collar crime provisions would eliminate the longstanding legal principle that ignorance is no defense for breaking the law. They would require prosecutors to prove that defendants knew they were committing a crime, not just that a crime was committed. Moreover, they would institute a much higher standard of proof for what constitutes knowledge of guilt than has been used by judges for decades. [4]

Over-prosecution of white collar crime is not a problem unless you are a corporate executive who pushes the limits of the law. On the contrary, the American public strongly believes that white collar criminal prosecution is too lax. The fact that there were no significant prosecutions after the 2008 Wall Street debacle is exhibit one.

Federal prosecutions of white collar crime are down to 2% of federal criminal cases from 7% in 1980. The proposed provisions would not only reduce prosecutions further, it would give white collar criminal defendants a vehicle for engaging in extensive litigation (e.g., about who knew what when) and likely allow many of them to escape liability for serious crimes. Plausible deniability would clearly become a get out of jail free card, if it isn’t already.

Senator Warren released a report in early 2016 that documents 20 examples of cases where white collar crime prosecution was inexcusably weak. They range from ignition switch problems in GM cars to foreign currency market manipulation by a group of the largest financial corporations. She notes that the differential prosecution of street crime versus white collar crime “has a corrosive effect on the fabric of democracy.” (page 1) In some of her examples it appears that large corporations and their executives have decided that lax enforcement and weak punishment make the penalties for breaking the law an acceptable cost of doing business. Senator Warren promises to provide annual updates on responses to white collar crimes. [5]

The gaping chasm between get tough on crime incarceration for street crime and the lax punishment of white collar crime is an important factor in the cynicism and anger of the American public. The undermining of a bipartisan, thoughtful effort to reform over-incarceration and its racial bias by economic elites trying to weaken prosecution of white collar criminality is symbolic of their power to bend public policy to their benefit. This underscores how difficult the task of reclaiming our democracy will be and the vigilance it will require.

[1]       Wikipedia, retrieved 7/21/16, “United States incarceration rate” (

[2]       Wikipedia, retrieved 7/21/16, “Crime in the United States” (

[3]       Steinzor, R., 5/11/16, “Dangerous bedfellows: The stalemate on criminal justice reform,” The American Prospect (

[4]       Steinzor, R., 5/11/16, see above

[5]       Staff of Sen. Elizabeth Warren, Jan. 2016, “Rigged justice: How weak enforcement lets corporate offenders off easy” (



Monopolistic corporate power is a big problem in the US. Ever since the Reagan presidency in the 1980s, our government has effectively given up on enforcement of anti-trust (i.e., anti-monopoly) laws. Our anti-trust regulators have ignored evidence that the monopolistic power of huge corporations results in higher prices, lower wages, job losses, declining entrepreneurship, and increased inequality.

The regulators, the Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC), rarely block mergers or acquisitions. Sometimes they require corporations to make changes meant to address the negative consequences of huge size and significant economic (and potentially political) power. However, the changes corporations promise to make are often not fully implemented or are ineffective in ameliorating negative consequences, especially in the long-term. [1]

The DOJ and FTC have been compromised by decades of appointments of officials who came through the revolving door from the corporate sector and don’t believe that corporate power is a problem. A similar situation exists with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Its lack of effective oversight of Wall Street and the financial industry led to the 2008 economic collapse, as well as a host of other harmful consequences.

When the regulatory agencies are staffed with people from the industries they are supposed to regulate, weak standards and lackadaisical enforcement (including a lack of criminal prosecution) tend to be the result. This aspect of crony capitalism is referred to as the “cognitive capture” of regulatory agencies by the industries they are supposed to regulate. It occurs when the regulators share the mindset of and empathize with those they are supposed to regulate. [2] As Senator Elizabeth has said, “Personnel is policy.”

Crony capitalism has led to concentrated corporate power in our economy, higher corporate profits and CEO pay, increased economic inequality, destruction of the middle class, corruption of our elections, and distortion of public policies. A few months ago, the Senate Judiciary Committee held its first hearing on anti-trust laws and efforts to rein in monopolistic power in more than three years. Recently, the Obama administration has gotten noticeably more aggressive about challenging merger deals, but only after years of inaction. These are baby steps in the right direction, but there is a long, long way to go given how bad the situation has grown over the past 35 years.

Americans strongly agree (83%) that “the rules of the economy matter and the top 1 percent have used their influence to … their advantage.” Two-thirds of the public believe that corporations pay too little in taxes and three-quarters want to close tax loopholes that let speculators pay lower taxes on their profits than working people pay on their earnings. Eighty-six percent believe corporations have too much political power and that increased enforcement of laws and regulations is needed. [3] Our elected officials need to stop favoring corporate interests and start sticking up for working Americans and our democracy.

As voters, we need to demand that our elected officials support vigorous enforcement of anti-trust laws and effective regulation of corporate America. The federal government needs to use its powers under the Sherman Anti-trust Act to stop corporate power from growing, given that it is harming our economy and our democracy. Our President needs to appoint strong, independent regulators. Congress and state legislatures need to pass laws and budgets that reflect the interests, values, and priorities of the people, not the corporations and wealthy elites.

The good news is that the current presidential campaign has brought the issue of corporate power into the spotlight. For the first time since 1988, the Democratic Party platform contains language calling for stronger enforcement of anti-trust laws and more market place competition in our economy. [4] A recent report from the White House calls for promoting competition in our economy through stronger enforcement of anti-trust laws and pro-consumer policies and regulations. [5]

In this election year, I encourage you to examine federal and state candidates’ positions on these issues and to vote for candidates who support:

  • Strengthening enforcement of anti-trust (i.e., anti-monopoly) laws in order to increase market place competition,
  • Improving the effectiveness of regulations, and
  • Reducing the power of corporations in our economy, our elections, and in policy making.

This is essential if our democracy is to be of, by, and for the people, instead of controlled by and run for the benefit of large corporations and their wealthy executives and investors.

[1]       Jamrisko, M., & McLaughlin, D., 7/18/16, “Democrats imitate trust-busting Teddy in own populist appeal,” Bloomberg (

[2]       Lehmann, C., May 2016, “In the grip of greed,” In These Times (

[3]       Weissman, R., 4/11/16, “Americans agree: It’s corporate power that’s in our way,” Common Dreams (

[4]       Jamrisko, M., & McLaughlin, D., 7/18/16, see above

[5]       Council of Economic Advisers, April 2016, “Benefits of competition and indicators of market power,” The White House (


Huge corporations with monopolistic economic power not only affect economic outcomes, but also political and policy outcomes. As my previous post described, economically, corporate power results in higher prices, lower quality service, depressed wages, fewer jobs, increased profits, higher CEO pay, and a redistribution of income upward to big corporations, their executives, and big shareholders.

Politically, the concentration of power in huge corporations distorts public policies. Examples of policies that benefit large corporations and their wealthy CEOs and investors – to the detriment of the rest of us – include:

  • Special tax breaks and loopholes for both big corporations and wealthy individuals;
  • Bankruptcy laws that provide relief for corporations but not for distressed homeowners, student loan recipients, or credit card debtors;
  • Lack of restraints on corporations amassing power but many hurdles for workers trying to assert bargaining power through unions; and
  • Trade deals that protect the profits, intellectual property, and assets of big corporations but not the jobs and incomes of American workers, nor the environment and the safety of our food.

In addition, intellectual property laws here in the U.S. mean that we pay more for drugs than the citizens of any other developed nation. That’s partly because it’s perfectly legal in the U.S. (but not in most other nations) for the maker of a brand-name drug to pay generic drug makers to delay introducing their cheaper equivalents when the patent on the brand-name drug expires. This costs American consumers an estimated $3.5 billion a year – a hidden upward redistribution of our incomes to Pfizer, Merck, and other big pharmaceutical corporations, their executives, and major shareholders. [1]

Wealthy corporations and individuals distort public policies to their benefit through lobbying, the revolving door of personnel, and corruption of our elections through hundreds of millions of dollars of campaign spending. They obtain public policies that support their interests by using state governments to preempt or nullify local laws or initiatives, such as local public internet access or local minimum wage laws. [2] They also use the federal government to preempt state laws as they are trying to do with GMO food labeling. They have passed federal laws that ban federal regulation of fracking, for example, or that ban Medicare from negotiating drug prices with manufacturers (despite the fact that private insurers, the Veterans Administration, and most countries’ health care systems do this). And they use the courts to create corporate “rights” that are used to overturn local, state, and federal laws and regulations, such as limitations on corporate spending on elections.

In terms of campaign spending, the super wealthy account for a growing share of both Republicans’ and Democrats’ campaign funds. In the 1980 presidential election, the richest 0.01% (1 out of every 10,000 Americans or roughly 23,000 people) gave 10% ($10 out of every $100) of total campaign contributions. In 2012, the richest 0.01% of Americans (now 32,000 people due to population growth) accounted for 40% ($40 out of every $100) of all campaign contributions. So, whose voices do you think our elected officials are listening to when they make policy decisions?

If this weren’t bad enough, the exploding outside spending on our elections (i.e., outside of candidates’ campaigns as described in the previous paragraph), which is supposedly independent of candidates’ campaigns, is almost entirely funded by wealthy individuals and big corporations. Furthermore, they can make unlimited “independent expenditures” while their direct contributions to candidates are quite limited. But the candidates know who is paying for the “independent” spending, so these voices are further amplified.

This campaign spending by wealthy individuals and corporations affects who runs for office, shifts the results of elections, and affects the decisions of elected officials. This corrupts the election process and the policy making of our elected officials. The result is not government of, by, and for all the people, but policies favoring the wealthy and their corporations.

Further adding to the influence of big corporations is the revolving door of personnel. Many government regulators, and some members of Congress, come from the industries they oversee in their official, governmental duties. Some Wall Street firms actually pay big bonuses to employees who take jobs in the agencies, such as the Treasury Department and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that regulate and oversee the banking and financial services industries.

On the other end, when members of Congress or other government employees leave, they often go to work in the industries they oversaw or had contact with when they were in government. A significant number go back to work for the employer they left when they took their government job. Knowing that a well-paying job in the private sector is waiting for you when you leave your government job certainly would seem to present a conflict of interest and might influence decisions made while working in government.

Some members of Congress and other government employees leave, not for jobs in industries they oversaw, but to lobby their previous colleagues on behalf of industries they oversaw or with which they had contact. In the 1970s, only about 3% of departing members of Congress went on to become lobbyists. In recent years, half (50%) of all departing senators and 42% of retiring representatives have done so. This isn’t because recent retirees have fewer qualms about making money off their government contacts. It’s because the financial rewards of lobbying have become much greater as our giant corporations spend more and more money on lobbyists in their efforts to influence public policies. [3]

This is crony capitalism and it has led to huge corporations with significant market and political power. As my previous post described, America only has four big airlines, three big health insurance companies, four big cable and internet conglomerates, and six too-big-to-fail banks that are getting bigger not smaller. Other examples of huge corporations and limited competition are that just two companies sell 70% of the countless toothpaste brands, there are only five big book publishers, and firms like Walmart, Google, and Amazon use their market power to squeeze out competitors and exercise significant power over suppliers. Big technology companies are driving small competitors out of business and massive conglomerates control our food, cosmetics, and drug industries.

Huge corporations with monopolistic power are not healthy for our economy or our democracy. We need to reassert that government policies and the rules of our economy should be of, by, and for the people, not of, by, and for the economic elite. Otherwise, we become a plutocracy, oligarchy, or corporatocracy – they’re pretty interchangeable, take your pick.

[1]       Reich, R., 11/1/15, “The Rigging of the American Market” (

[2]       Linzey, T., 1/21/16, “Slaves in all but name: Abolishing the corporate state in rural communities,” In These Times (

[3]       Reich, R., 6/19/16, “A big idea for Hillary,” (


My last post described the efforts of the big food and agricultural corporations to block the labeling of food that contains genetically modified ingredients. Here are some other examples of the effects of the monopolistic power of large corporations, which is allowed and abetted by crony capitalism. (See my Crony Capitalism = Monopoly Power post for more information.)

Americans pay more for Internet service than do residents of any other developed country and typically get lower speed service. This is largely because for 80% of us our internet service provider (ISP) has a monopoly, i.e., we have no alternative choice for our ISP. This lack of competition allows ISPs to charge monopoly prices for low quality service.

Internet service in the U.S. costs three-and-a-half times more than it does in France, for example, where the typical customer can choose among seven providers. [1] In the U.S., there are just four giant telecom corporations: AT&T (includes DirecTV and U-verse services), Comcast, Charter Communications (includes Time Warner and Bright House), and Dish. They serve focused geographic areas that limit the competition among them and with the next three providers (Verizon, Cox, and Cablevision) who are roughly a third the size of the smallest of the four giants.

The giant U.S. telecom corporations have succeeded in getting 21 states to pass laws barring municipalities from creating or expanding their own, public Internet access, which typically provides cheaper and higher speed service than the commercial providers. In February, 2015, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) voted 3 to 2 overrule the state laws that were preventing Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Wilson, North Carolina, from expanding their municipal networks. This occurred soon after the White House’s release of a report on Community-Based Broadband Solutions that explains why escaping from the monopoly power of commercial ISPs is so important. It noted that America’s internet service is too slow, too expensive, and too unreliable to support a 21st century economy, especially in rural areas. [2] Hopefully, the FCC ruling and the White House report will lead to more competition and better service in the ISP business, but you can bet that the big, corporate ISPs will keep fighting in the states, in Congress, at the FCC, and in the courts to maintain their monopolistic power.

Due to limited competition in the airline business, prices are rising despite falling costs. Domestic airfares rose 2.5% over the past year, and are now at their highest levels since the government began tracking them in 1995. Meanwhile fuel prices, the largest single cost for the airlines, have plummeted. This can happen only because there are just four major airlines in the U.S. now (i.e., American, Delta, United, and Southwest) and many airports are served by only one or two. Ten years ago, there were nine major airlines, but the lack of enforcement of anti-trust laws have allowed mergers that have reduced competition. [3]

Similarly, food prices have been rising faster than inflation, while crop prices are now at a six-year low. Here again, the giant corporations that process food have the market power to raise prices due to limited competition. Four food companies control 82% of beef packing, 85% of soybean processing, 63% of pork packing, and 53% of chicken processing.

Because our big banks and financial corporations face limited competition, the interest rates we pay on home mortgages, college loans, and credit cards are higher than they would be if there were more competition. As recently as 2000, America’s six largest banks (JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, and Morgan Stanley) held just 25% of all U.S. banking assets; they now hold 44%. We need to break up these giant financial corporations to increase competition and to protect our economy from the risks that led to the 2008 financial collapse.

Finally, health insurance is costing us more each year, and co-payments and deductibles are rising, because insurers are consolidating into bigger and bigger corporations. There are now only three major health insurers (i.e., Aetna, Anthem, and UnitedHealth) and due to the lack of competition, they have the power to raise prices. They say that mergers make their companies more efficient, but they really just give them more power to charge more and increase profits. This is borne out by the fact that their stock prices are skyrocketing and Standard & Poor’s index of health insurers’ stock prices recently hit its highest level in more than twenty years.

These over-priced goods and services produce a hidden upward redistribution of income from consumers to large corporations and their executives and big shareholders. These monopolistic corporations dominate our telecommunications, banking, air travel, food, health insurance, and other industries. [4] Crony capitalism has allowed the mergers and acquisitions that have built these giant corporations and produces the weak regulation that allows them to wield extensive power in the market place.

As long as the big corporations, their top executives, and wealthy shareholders have the political power to do so, they’ll keep redistributing as much of the nation’s income as they can upward to themselves. We, the American voters, need to assert our political power and stop monopolistic market practices and collusion, break up the giant corporate monopolies, and put an end to the rigging of the American economy.

In this election year, I encourage you to examine candidates’ positions on these issues and vote for candidates who support strengthening enforcement of anti-trust (i.e., anti-monopoly) laws, increasing market place competition, and reducing the power of corporations in our economy and elections.

I’ll share more examples of how and where corporate power and crony capitalism are rigging our economy in subsequent posts.

[1]       Reich, R., 11/1/15, “The Rigging of the American Market” (

[2]       Estes, A.C., 1/14/15, “Obama’s plan to loosen Comcast’s stranglehold on your Internet,” Gizmodo (

[3]       Reich, R., 11/1/15, see above

[4]       Reich, R., 11/1/15, see above


One reason large corporations succeed in influencing policies is that they are relentless. If at first they don’t succeed, they try, try again and again and again. They can do so because they have:

  • Lots of money and other resources, such as top notch lawyers, and
  • As much time as it takes, given they are around forever and policy makers, i.e., elected and appointed public officials, change over time.

Corporations pursue favorable policies in multiple venues and at the federal, state, and local levels. They work to get the policies they want from legislatures and Congress, from regulators in the executive branch, and through court cases. They lobby, they contribute to candidates, they move people back and forth between being their employees and holding positions in government, and they engage in direct spending on campaigns, often through “dark money” groups so they can remain anonymous.

A perfect and current example of this is the battle over labeling food that contains genetically modified (GM) ingredients from genetically modified organisms (GMO) such as corn, wheat, soybeans, or animals.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires detailed food labeling that identifies ingredients. However, the big corporations of the food and agriculture industry have blocked any FDA requirement that food labels indicate the use of GMO ingredients. There have been bills on both sides of this issue in Congress, but they have gone nowhere – until now. But first a little background.

Various polls indicate that 70% to 93% of Americans want GMO labels. Proponents argue that consumers have a right to know what’s in their food so they can make informed decisions about what they want to eat – which is the precise reason for the FDA requirement to list ingredients. They do not argue that one should or shouldn’t eat GMO-containing food, but rather that one should have the information to make such a choice. By the way, over 60 other countries have GMO labeling laws.

Given the lack of progress on GMO labeling at the federal level, consumers who want to know if their food contains GMOs have turned their attention to requiring labeling through state laws. Ballot questions on GMO labeling were presented to voters in California in 2012, Washington State in 2013, and Colorado and Oregon in 2014. All were defeated by aggressive, expensive campaigns against them by the big food and agriculture corporations.

In California, opponents spent $46 million while proponents spent $9 million. Monsanto alone spent $8 million while DuPont, PepsiCo, Bayer, Kraft Foods, Coca-Cola, Nestle, ConAgra Foods, and General Mills each contributed over a million dollars. (Monsanto’s stakes in the fight are huge: its GM seeds account for 80% of the corn and 93% of the soybeans grown in the U.S.) Aggressive advertising by the opponents, including the claim that GMO labeling would lead to increased food prices, was successful in undermining support for the ballot questions. Polls showed the ballot question winning by 36% in mid-September and 8% to 9% in early October, but it eventually lost 51% to 49% on Election Day in November. [1]

The Oregon vote was even closer. After polls showed it winning by 65% in June and 5% to 8% in early October, it lost by 837 votes out of 1.5 million cast (0.06%) on Election Day. Twenty-one million dollars was spent in opposition to it and $11 million in support. Opposition spending included $6 million from Monsanto, $4.5 million from DuPont, and over $1 million each from PepsiCo and Coca-Cola. [2]

In addition to ballot questions, roughly 100 bills on GMO labeling have been introduced in state legislatures in at least 29 states. Alaska, Connecticut, Maine, and Vermont have passed labeling laws despite industry efforts to defeat them. As is not unusual in corporations’ relentless efforts to win policy battles, the industry is threatening to file court challenges to these laws. [3]

The Vermont GMO labeling law just went into effect on July 1, so the food and agriculture industry is making a big push to get federal legislation passed to preempt it. Ostensibly, their goal is to have one national standard rather than 50 individual state standards that would be hard to comply with and potentially confusing to consumers. However, the compromise legislation in Congress seems to indicate that they have other goals.

The bipartisan bill that the U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee announced last week would:

  • Ban states from requiring GMO labeling (preempting Vermont’s strong law),
  • Exempt beef, pork, poultry, and eggs from GMO labeling,
  • Exempt foods with meat as the majority ingredient from GMO labeling,
  • Narrowly define genetic engineering to exclude new techniques, and
  • Allow labeling that wouldn’t be clear to consumers, such as a symbol or a link to GMO information (e.g., a phone number, a website, or a QR code for scanning with a smart phone), as opposed to a clear, text label such as “Contains GMO ingredients.” [4]

Tellingly, the bill would not impose any penalties for violating the labeling requirement! The food and agriculture industry is supporting this compromise, of course, including Monsanto, General Mills, Campbell Soup, Kellogg, ConAgra Foods, and Mars corporations, as well as industry groups such as the American Soybean Association, the National Grain and Feed Association, and the Grocery Manufacturers Association.

I urge you to contact your U.S. Senators NOW, as they may vote on this bill the week of July 5. (One of the strategies used by big corporations and their allies to win policy battles is to rush bills through the legislative process so the public and opponents don’t have time to mount opposition.) Let them know what you think of this compromise legislation. Let them know if you’d like your food clearly labeled as to whether it contains GMO ingredients, thereby allowing you to make informed consumer decisions about what you eat.

You can find contact information for your US Senators at

[1]       Ballotpedia, “California Proposition 37, Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food (2012)” (,_Mandatory_Labeling_of_Genetically_Engineered_Food_(2012))

[2]       Ballotpedia, “Oregon Mandatory Labeling of GMOs Initiative, Measure 92 (2014)” (,_Measure_92_(2014))

[3]       The Atlantic, May 2014, “Want to know if your food is genetically modified?” (

[4]       Wasson, E., 6/26/16, “Bipartisan deal struck on GMO labeling,” The Boston Globe from Bloomberg News