FIXES FOR INSTAGRAM AND FACEBOOK

Note: If you find my posts too long or too dense to read on occasion, please just read the bolded portions. They present the key points I’m making and the most important information I’m sharing.

The evidence that Facebook and Instagram are harmful, especially to teens and young people, goes back to 2006 and has been growing consistently more definitive over the last fifteen years. (See my previous post for more detail.) The pressure from the public, especially parents, and most recently from Congress to address this problem is mounting.

In response, in mid-March, Meta Platforms (the new parent corporation for Facebook and Instagram) made an announcement of some new and coming parental supervision tools for Instagram. Note that teens will have to consent to their parents’ use of supervision tools! Furthermore, teens will know what their parents are seeing about their account and activity. Rather than building in universal safety controls, Meta claims it wants to enable parents to control teens’ social media activity because parents know their teens best and teens have different maturity levels. This sounds to me like a classic blame the victim – and the victim’s parents – strategy.

Moreover, Meta knows that many parents aren’t tech savvy and/or won’t have the time and energy to effectively control teens’ social media activity. It also knows that teens tend to be far more tech savvy than their parents and will often be able to evade parental controls. It could easily institute universal strategies to eliminate or greatly reduce the potential for harm from its platforms. Finally, it knows that teens’ vulnerability changes over time and that having harm protections in place by default would be much more effective than relying on parents to recognize and quickly react to teens’ changing vulnerability.

Here’s what Meta announced about new parental supervision tools for Instagram: [1]

  • A Family Center providing information to teach parents how to talk about social media with teens.
  • An ability for teens to invite a parent to supervise their social media account.
  • Parental ability to see how much time their teens are spending on Instagram, whom they are following, who is following them, and when they complain to Instagram about another user. However, a parent will have to have an Instagram account themselves to do so.
  • Future plans for:
    • Parental ability to limit when teens can use Instagram (e.g., not during school or after bedtime),
    • Blocking of access to inappropriate content by parents and/or based on ratings by the International Age Rating Coalition, and
    • Parental supervision tools for its Oculus Quest virtual reality program, where parents, experts, and the British government have raised concerns about exposure to violence and harassment.

Meta acknowledged in its statement that many parents are not on social media and are not tech savvy – meaning that these parental controls are often meaningless. Furthermore, many of these controls, including the future plans, seem like controls that should have been put in place years ago and before these products ever went on the market, i.e., they’re too little too late.

A bipartisan bill has been introduced in Congress, the Kids’ Online Safety Act (KOSA), requiring Facebook, Instagram, and other social media platforms to provide parents with more control over their children’s online interactions. The bill reflects months of congressional investigations and a history of failures by the social media platforms to respond to their documented harmful effects on young users. [2] Congress last passed legislation to protect children when they’re online, including their privacy, 24 years ago. [3] Needless to say, much has change since then and the current business model of Facebook, Instagram, and the Internet as a whole is simply not healthy for kids and teens.

KOSA would require social media platforms to provide “easy-to-use” tools to limit screen time, protect personal data, and keep kids under 16 safe. It holds the online platforms accountable by establishing an obligation for them to put the interests of children first and to make safety the default. It requires them to prevent the promotion of bullying, sexually abusive behavior, eating disorders, self-harm, and other harmful content. The bill mandates an annual independent audit of risks to minors, steps taken to prevent harm, and compliance with KOSA. [4]

The bill would require the social media platforms to be transparent about how they operate. It would require giving parents the ability to disable addictive product features and modify content recommendation algorithms to limit or ban certain types of content. It would require the social media platforms to provide researchers and regulators with access to company data to monitor and investigate actual and potential harm to teens and children. This would allow parents and policymakers to assess whether the online platforms are actually taking effective steps to protect children.

The root of the problems with social media platforms is that there is greater profit in promoting unsafe behaviors, creating animosity, encouraging extremism, and fueling pseudo-science than there is in creating a safe place for civil discourse based on facts. Our system of capitalism and the deference to and alignment of our policymakers with large corporations has allowed this business model that commodifies and exploits human attention to explode unchecked. In the world of social media, you, your time and attention span, and your clicks are the products that are being sold – to advertisers. This means the social media business is a race to the bottom; an enterprise based on stimulating, titillating, and capturing our most base emotional and subconscious responses. Social media’s ability to do harm to individuals, our society, and our democracy is well-documented and endemic to the current business model. Without strong and effective public oversight and control, the social media platforms will continue to inflict substantial harms.

I urge you to contact President Biden, as well as your U.S. Representative and Senators, to let them know that you support the Kids’ Online Safety Act and additional actions to regulate social media platforms.

You can email President Biden at http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/submit-questions-and-comments or you can call the White House comment line at 202-456-1111 or the switchboard at 202-456-1414.

You can find contact information for your U.S. Representative at  http://www.house.gov/representatives/find/ and for your U.S. Senators at http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.

[1]      Peng, I., 3/17/22, “Meta adds parental tools to Instagram,” The Boston Globe from Bloomberg News

[2]      Zakrzewski, C., 2/17/22, “Senators introduce children’s online safety bill after months of hearings,” The Boston Globe from the Washington Post

[3]      Monahan, D., 3/22/22, “Diverse coalition of advocates urges Congress to pass legislation to protect kids and teens online,” Fairplay (https://fairplayforkids.org/march-22-2022-diverse-coalition-of-advocates-urges-congress-to-pass-legislation-to-protect-kids-and-teens-online/)

[4]      Blumenthal, Senator R., retrieved 2/16/22 from the Internet, “Blumenthal & Blackburn introduce comprehensive Kids’ Online Safety legislation,” (https://www.blumenthal.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/blumenthal-and-blackburn-introduce-comprehensive-kids-online-safety-legislation)

THE HARMS OF INSTAGRAM, FACEBOOK, AND SOCIAL MEDIA

Note: If you find my posts too long or too dense to read on occasion, please just read the bolded portions. They present the key points I’m making and the most important information I’m sharing.

The news that Facebook and Instagram are harmful, especially to teens and young people, is not new. In 2006, a college professor, Joni Siani, whose class on Interpersonal Communications had access to Facebook a year before the public, found almost immediately that the Facebook experience was stressful and depressing for her students. Her class effectively became a Facebook group therapy session. That’s the beginning of a story I’ll come back to in a minute. [1] (By the way, Facebook and Instagram are now part of a new corporate entity, Meta Platforms. This name change seems to me to be an effort to obfuscate responsibility and accountability for the harms caused by Facebook and Instagram.)

In 2019, the docudrama The Social Dilemma came out, which highlights the manipulation and harms of social media. I encourage you to watch the film (on Netflix) or at least watch the 2 ½ minute trailer that’s available on the website. I urge you to explore the website; there’s a wealth of information under the button “The Dilemma” and a variety of ways to pushback under the “Take Action” button.

The Social Dilemma was created by the Center for Humane Technology, which was founded in 2013 by a Google design ethicist. The Center’s website provides terrific resources for understanding the effects of social media platforms and how to use them intelligently. It has modules for parents and educators on how to help teens be safe, smart users of social media.

Last fall, a former Facebook employee, Frances Haugen, blew the whistle on Facebook’s practices with testimony to Congress, an appearance on 60 Minutes, and a trove of inside documents that the Wall Street Journal reported on extensively. (Blogger Whitney Tilson in one of her posts provides links to Haugen’s interview on 60 Minutes and to the Wall St. Journal’s investigative articles based on documents provided by Haugen. Tilson also wrote a letter to Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg that’s part of her blog post.)

Haugen documented that Facebook is a threat to our children and our democracy. Furthermore, she made it clear that Facebook knows this but fails to take steps to reduce the harm because doing so would hurt profits. I previously wrote about the threats of Facebook to our children and our democracy here and what can be done about them here.

Instagram, a Facebook partner under the Meta Platforms umbrella, says it only allows users on its platform who are 13 or older, but its age verification tools are weak. Its algorithm (i.e., its decision-making processes) for what information to direct to individual users has been shown to promote harmful content to youth who are particularly susceptible to such messages, such as material promoting eating disorders. Instagram was developing a separate product targeting children under 13 until criticism and pushback from parents and child advocacy organizations caused it to announce that it had paused (but not terminated) development.

A resource for responding to social media’s threats to children is an organization called Fairplay and its website. Formerly the Campaign for a Commercial Free Childhood, Fairplay has been fighting for years to protect kids from the manipulation and harm from commercial advertising and social media platforms. If you want to get updates from Fairplay, click on “Connect” under the “About” button to sign-up. Fairplay helps parents manage kids’ screen time and provides alternatives to screen time. It sponsors a Screen-free Week every spring. It has established the Screen Time Action Network to support parents concerned about the effects of screen time and social media platforms on their children.

Returning to the story of that college professor, Joni Siani, who in 2006 saw the harm that Facebook did to her college students, in 2013, she wrote a book about the love-hate relationship between users and their digital devices titled Celling your soul: no app for life. And she started an organization called No App for Life.

In 2021, Siani and No App for Life partnered with Fairplay and its Screen Time Action Network to create three podcasts titled The Harms. They present three stories of parents who lost a child due to social media platforms’ harmful impacts on their children. One describes the ruthless assaults of social media “friends” that led to a suicide. One describes how “fun” online challenges can lead to horrible results. And one describes how drug dealers sell their products on social media, even posting ads amongst all the other ads seen on social media constantly. These horrific examples are from strong families who were trying to do everything right in managing their children’s social media activities but were overwhelmed by the power of social media.

My next post will summarize Meta Platforms recent announcement of new and planned parental supervision tools, as well as the bipartisan Kids Online Safety Act, which has been introduced in Congress.

[1]      Rogers, J., & Siani, J., 3/6/22, “What do I do now? Unthinkable stories Big Tech  doesn’t want to tell,” Fairplay’s Screen Time Action Network and No App for Life Podcasts (https://fairplayforkids.org/harms-podcast/)

MORE EVIDENCE THAT “INFLATION” IS PRICE GOUGING

Note: If you find my posts too long or too dense to read on occasion, please just read the bolded portions. They present the key points I’m making and the most important information I’m sharing.

More evidence is emerging that price gouging, particularly by big corporations, is responsible for a good portion of recent consumer price increases. Inflation is normally the result of increases in production costs. In a competitive market, production cost increases result in decreased profits. However, currently, corporate profits are increasing, often dramatically. With production cost increases, profits would be expected to decline because producers will be competing for consumers based on price. Therefore, they would restrain price increases to avoid losing customers. Some of the cost increases might be passed through to consumers in order to reduce the decline in profits. With real competition in a free-market, a producer’s prices and profits can’t increase dramatically because other producers in the market (or new ones who will enter it) will take advantage of the opportunity to make good but lower profits by charging a lower price.

When consumer prices increase and profits increase dramatically, real competition is NOT occurring. Rather, it shows that producers have monopolistic power and are able to increase prices and their profits because consumers have no or few choices. In some cases, the few producers in the market may collude and raise their prices in tandem rather than actually competing with each other. This is illegal price fixing.

In 2019, before the pandemic, big U.S. corporations had about $1 trillion in profits. In 2021, during the pandemic, their profits were $1.7 trillion, a 70% increase. One estimate is that these increased profits account for 60% of the price increases that consumers are experiencing; it’s supposedly “inflation” but it’s really price gouging. [1]

For example, Proctor & Gamble (P&G) increased the prices of its Pampers brand diapers last April blaming increased costs. However, its previous quarterly profits had been $3.8 billion and, six months later, its profits were over $5 billion. These exorbitant profits allowed it to spend $3 billion buying back its own stock. Corporate stock buybacks increase the price of a corporation’s stock, benefiting big, wealthy shareholders, including corporate executives. (Note: Until 1982, stock buybacks were considered illegal market manipulation.)

In a competitive market, consumers would buy other brands of diapers to avoid the P&G price increase. However, effectively, there is only one other brand of disposable diapers, Huggies, which are made by Kimberly-Clark. These two corporations control 80% of the global disposable diaper market. Kimberly-Clark just happened to increase its prices for Huggies at roughly the same time as P&G increased its prices for Pampers.

As another example, as gas prices at the pump skyrocket, the big oil corporations’ 2021 profits were at seven-year highs, even before the most recent dramatic gas price increases:

  • Exxon Mobil: $23 billion, highest since 2014
  • Chevron: $15.6 billion, highest since 2014
  • Shell: $19.3 billion, highest since 2014
  • BP: $12.9 billion, highest since 2013

Big oil is using the smoke screen of the war in Ukraine and inflation elsewhere in the economy to engage in price gouging. The U.S. gets only about 7% of its imported petroleum products from Russia and this represents just 3% of the oil the U.S. consumes. Moreover, in 2020, the U.S. exported more petroleum products than it imported. This is hardly a situation where the loss of Russian oil would result in such dramatic price increases if the oil market was a truly competitive one.

One way to tackle price gouging is with a windfall profits tax. Democrats in Congress have introduced the Big Oil Windfall Profits Tax bill. It is estimated that this tax would raise $45 billion per year. That money would be used to provide rebates to middle and lower income households of $240 (single tax filers) to $360 (joint tax filers) per year. [2] A windfall profits tax would seem to be called for in many other sectors of the economy as well, such as meat packers, diaper makers, drug manufacturers, car dealers, and shipping corporations.

Other ways to fight price gouging include:

  • Price controls,
  • Stronger enforcement of anti-trust laws including breaking up giant corporations that have monopolistic power in their markets,
  • Stronger action to stop and penalize anti-competitive market behavior including criminal charges against executives who engage in price fixing, and
  • Banning stock buybacks, which provide corporate executives with a strong incentive for price gouging to increase profits. [3]

As President Joe Biden said, “Capitalism without competition isn’t capitalism, it’s exploitation.” He’s right. Price gouging is one important manifestation of that exploitation. This exploitation of consumers is one result of the current extreme capitalism in the U.S. that has allowed the emergence of huge corporations that reduce or eliminate competition. We need to fight price gouging and anti-competitive capitalism with both short-term and long-term strategies.

I urge you to contact President Biden and your U.S. Representative and Senators to let them know that you support a range of actions to stop price gouging. Tell them you support the Big Oil Windfall Profits Tax bill and urge them to pass it quickly. Urge them to institute a windfall profits tax on all businesses that are engaging in price gouging, not just big oil. Ask them to support stronger enforcement of antitrust laws and to penalize anti-competitive market behavior. Tell them to ban stock buybacks and, if all else fails, to institute price controls on price gouging companies.

You can email President Biden at http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/submit-questions-and-comments or you can call the White House comment line at 202-456-1111 or the switchboard at 202-456-1414.

You can find contact information for your U.S. Representative at  http://www.house.gov/representatives/find/ and for your U.S. Senators at http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.

[1]      Hightower, J., 2/1/22, “Corporate profiteers’ pandemic strategy: Gouge consumers and blame Joe Biden,” The Hightower Lowdown (https://hightowerlowdown.org/article/corporate-profiteers-pandemic-strategy-gouge-consumers-and-blame-joe-biden/)

[2]      Germanos, A., 3/10/22, “Dems introduce windfall tax on big oil so companies ‘pay a price when they price gouge’ ,” Common Dreams (https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/03/10/dems-introduce-windfall-tax-big-oil-so-companies-pay-price-when-they-price-gouge)

[3]      Hightower, J., 2/1/22, see above

PRICE GOUGING BY BIG PHARMA

Note: If you find my posts too long or too dense to read on occasion, please just read the bolded portions. They present the key points I’m making and the most important information I’m sharing.

Big increases in the prices of many drugs from multiple manufacturers in January appear to be price gouging by the big drug companies. Price gouging by big corporations is increasingly being blamed as a major contributor to the current high level of inflation. (See this previous post for more detail.)

Thirteen Members of Congress have sent a letter to the industry trade group (the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America [PhRMA]) asking for an explanation and justification for the price increases. [1] The letter alleges that the big drug companies are using their monopolistic power in the market to raise prices to increase their already large profits, i.e., to engage in price gouging. [2]

The broad price increases by virtually every manufacturer of popular prescription drugs appear to be coordinated and perhaps timed to coincide with (and therefore go unnoticed due to) the high inflation the economy is experiencing. These drug price increases will contribute to keeping inflation high. Although drug companies often increase some prices in January, they also often increase prices in July as well. Therefore, these drug price increases are probably not the only increases in drug prices consumers, Medicare and other health insurers, and the economy are likely to experience this year. [3]

A study of drug prices over the first 25 days of January found that drug companies increased the prices of 72% of the 187 different formulations of the 100 top selling drugs and on 26% of all brand name drugs. While the average increase for brand name drugs was 5.1%, for 118 drugs the increase was 10% or more. The highest price increase was 60%!

A separate study of price increases on the 20 drugs with the highest expenditures by Medicare found that prices were raised on 16 of them. Twelve of them had increases of 4.0% or more and four of those had increases of 6.0% or more. These price increases are estimated to cost Medicare and seniors $2.5 billion this year. Many of these drugs have been on the market for years and some for decades, so it appears that these price increases are only occurring to increase the already high profits of the drug companies.

The pharmaceutical drug industry’s profits (i.e., operating margin) are 26.4% of revenue compared with an average of 13.2% across all U.S. industries. [4] A profit margin of 10% is generally considered good and one of 20% is considered high. So, the pharmaceutical drug industry’s 26.4% is very high and price increases are possible only because of a lack of competition, i.e., a lack of other manufacturers that would sell at lower prices and be happy to have somewhat lower, but still healthy, profit margins.

Pfizer Inc., for example, is the manufacturer of eight of the twenty drugs with the highest price increases in January 2022, all of which were 10% or higher. In 2021, it reported revenues of $81.3 billion and profits of $25.2 billion, both of which had roughly doubled from 2020. Its 2021 profit margin was 31.0%. Nonetheless, it significantly increased drug prices in January 2022 and projects that in 2022 its revenue will grow 23% and its profit margin will grow to 37%. [5] It’s hard to view its price increases as anything but monopolistic power in the market for its drugs and greed for even more exorbitant profits.

The Build Back Better Act (BBBA) included some provisions to address high drug prices, including allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices with manufacturers (which the Veterans’ Administration and every private health insurer and other country do). With the BBBA stalled, a standalone bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate to cut drug prices. However, Republicans blocked voting on the bill.

President Biden, in his State of the Union speech on March 1st, called for Congressional action to cut drug prices, including allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices and putting a cap on the price of insulin at $35 per month. The price of insulin in the U.S. is eight times what it is in Canada and ten times the average price in three dozen other countries. [6]

I urge you to contact President Biden and your U.S. Representative and Senators to let them know that you support a range of actions to control and reduce drug prices. Allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices is one. Price controls and a windfall profits tax are others. (By the way, price controls and a windfall profits tax should be considered for all businesses that are engaging in price gouging, not just the drug companies.)

You can email President Biden at http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/submit-questions-and-comments or you can call the White House comment line at 202-456-1111 or the switchboard at 202-456-1414.

You can find contact information for your U.S. Representative at  http://www.house.gov/representatives/find/ and for your U.S. Senators at http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.

UPDATE: I wrote about price gouging by drug companies in 2016, including highlighting the huge price increases ($100 to $608) for EpiPens, which inject a drug to treat severe allergic reactions, such as to peanuts or a bee sting. On Feb. 28, 2022, the EpiPen price gouger, Mylan (now Viatris), agreed to a $264 million class-action lawsuit settlement for illegal monopolistic behavior. EpiPens are made by two subsidiaries of Pfizer, which settled its piece of the lawsuit for $345 million last July. [7]

[1]      Corbett, J., 3/2/22, “Warren demands big pharma end ‘corporate price gouging’,” Common Dreams (https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/03/02/warren-demands-big-pharma-end-corporate-price-gouging)

[2]      Price gouging typically refers to price increases when businesses are taking advantage of spikes in demand or shortages of supply and charge exorbitant prices for necessities, often after a natural disaster or another type of emergency. Here it refers to businesses that are taking advantage of having monopolistic power, which means they control the supply in the market.

[3]      Senator Elizabeth Warren et al., 3/1/22, “Letter to PhRMA on January 2022 drug price increases,” (https://www.warren.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/2022.03.01%20Letter%20to%20PhRMA%20on%20January%202022%20Drug%20Price%20Increases%20(1).pdf)

[4]      Stern School of Business, Jan. 2022, “Margins by sector (US),” New York University (https://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/datafile/margin.html)

[5]      Pfizer Inc., 2/8/22, “Pfizer reports fourth-quarter and full-year 2021 results,” (https://s28.q4cdn.com/781576035/files/doc_financials/2021/q4/Q4-2021-PFE-Earnings-Release.pdf)

[6]      RAND Corporation, 1/6/21, “The astronomical price of insulin hurts American families,” (https://www.rand.org/blog/rand-review/2021/01/the-astronomical-price-of-insulin-hurts-american-families.html)

[7]      Jimenez, J., 2/28/22, “Viatris agrees to settle EpiPen antitrust litigation for $264 million,” The New York Times

PRICE GOUGING BY BIG PHARMA (3/5/22, #452) Categories:

Note: If you find my posts too long or too dense to read on occasion, please just read the bolded portions. They present the key points I’m making and the most important information I’m sharing.

Big increases in the prices of many drugs from multiple manufacturers in January appear to be price gouging by the big drug companies. Price gouging by big corporations is increasingly being blamed as a major contributor to the current high level of inflation. (See this previous post for more detail.)

Thirteen Members of Congress have sent a letter to the industry trade group (the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America [PhRMA]) asking for an explanation and justification for the price increases. [1] The letter alleges that the big drug companies are using their monopolistic power in the market to raise prices to increase their already large profits, i.e., to engage in price gouging. [2]

The broad price increases by virtually every manufacturer of popular prescription drugs appear to be coordinated and perhaps timed to coincide with (and therefore go unnoticed due to) the high inflation the economy is experiencing. These drug price increases will contribute to keeping inflation high. Although drug companies often increase some prices in January, they also often increase prices in July as well. Therefore, these drug price increases are probably not the only increases in drug prices consumers, Medicare and other health insurers, and the economy are likely to experience this year. [3]

A study of drug prices over the first 25 days of January found that drug companies increased the prices of 72% of the 187 different formulations of the 100 top selling drugs and on 26% of all brand name drugs. While the average increase for brand name drugs was 5.1%, for 118 drugs the increase was 10% or more. The highest price increase was 60%!

A separate study of price increases on the 20 drugs with the highest expenditures by Medicare found that prices were raised on 16 of them. Twelve of them had increases of 4.0% or more and four of those had increases of 6.0% or more. These price increases are estimated to cost Medicare and seniors $2.5 billion this year. Many of these drugs have been on the market for years and some for decades, so it appears that these price increases are only occurring to increase the already high profits of the drug companies.

The pharmaceutical drug industry’s profits (i.e., operating margin) are 26.4% of revenue compared with an average of 13.2% across all U.S. industries. [4] A profit margin of 10% is generally considered good and one of 20% is considered high. So, the pharmaceutical drug industry’s 26.4% is very high and price increases are possible only because of a lack of competition from companies that would be willing to sell at lower prices and have lower profit margins.

Pfizer Inc., for example, is the manufacturer of eight of the twenty drugs with the highest price increases in January 2022, all of which were 10% or higher. In 2021, it reported revenues of $81.3 billion and profits of $25.2 billion, both of which had roughly doubled from 2020. Its 2021 profit margin was 31.0%. Nonetheless, it significantly increased drug prices in January 2022 and projects that in 2022 its revenue will grow 23% and its profit margin will grow to 37%. [5] It’s hard to view this as anything but monopolistic power in the market for its drugs and greed for even more exorbitant profits.

The Build Back Better Act (BBBA) included some provisions to address high drug prices, including allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices with manufacturers (which the Veterans’ Administration and every private health insurer and other country do). With the BBBA stalled, a standalone bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate to cut drug prices. However, Republicans blocked voting on the bill.

President Biden, in his State of the Union speech on March 1st, called for Congressional action to cut drug prices, including allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices and putting a cap on the price of insulin at $35 per month. The price of insulin in the U.S. is eight times what it is in Canada and ten times the average price in three dozen other countries. [6]

I urge you to contact President Biden and your U.S. Representative and Senators to let them know that you support a range of actions to control and reduce drug prices. Allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices is one. Price controls and a windfall profits tax are others. (By the way, price controls and a windfall profits tax should be considered for all businesses that are engaging in price gouging, not just the drug companies.)

You can email President Biden at http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/submit-questions-and-comments or you can call the White House comment line at 202-456-1111 or the switchboard at 202-456-1414.

You can find contact information for your U.S. Representative at  http://www.house.gov/representatives/find/ and for your U.S. Senators at http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.

UPDATE: I wrote about price gouging by drug companies in 2016, including highlighting the huge price increases ($100 to $608) for EpiPens, which inject a drug to treat severe allergic reactions, such as to peanuts or a bee sting. On Feb. 28,2022, the EpiPen price gouger, Mylan (now Viatris), agreed to a $264 million class-action lawsuit settlement for illegal monopolistic behavior. EpiPens are made by two subsidiaries of Pfizer, which settled its piece of the lawsuit for $345 million last July. [7]

[1]      Corbett, J., 3/2/22, “Warren demands big pharma end ‘corporate price gouging’,” Common Dreams (https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/03/02/warren-demands-big-pharma-end-corporate-price-gouging)

[2]      Price gouging typically refers to price increases when businesses are taking advantage of spikes in demand or shortages of supply and charge exorbitant prices for necessities, often after a natural disaster or another type of emergency. Here it refers to businesses that are taking advantage of having monopolistic power, which means they control the supply in the market.

[3]      Senator Elizabeth Warren et al., 3/1/22, “Letter to PhRMA on January 2022 drug price increases,” (https://www.warren.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/2022.03.01%20Letter%20to%20PhRMA%20on%20January%202022%20Drug%20Price%20Increases%20(1).pdf)

[4]      Stern School of Business, Jan. 2022, “Margins by sector (US),” New York University (https://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/datafile/margin.html)

[5]      Pfizer Inc., 2/8/22, “Pfizer reports fourth-quarter and full-year 2021 results,” (https://s28.q4cdn.com/781576035/files/doc_financials/2021/q4/Q4-2021-PFE-Earnings-Release.pdf)

[6]      RAND Corporation, 1/6/21, “The astronomical price of insulin hurts American families,” (https://www.rand.org/blog/rand-review/2021/01/the-astronomical-price-of-insulin-hurts-american-families.html)

[7]      Jimenez, J., 2/28/22, “Viatris agrees to settle EpiPen antitrust litigation for $264 million,” The New York Times